Endodontics involves the study and care of pulp. Pulp is the soft tissue or nerve section of a tooth. This includes the nerves, connective tissue, blood vessels, and reparative cells of the tooth.


An apicoectomy is a root end surgery where the tip of a tooth’s root is taken out so that a cavity in the root end will be able to be filled. The filling is usually of biocompatible material, which will interact with a person’s biological systems. Sometimes surgery may be conducted using a microscope. This procedure becomes necessary when normal root canal procedures fail and other treatments were also unsuccessful or discouraged. Microsurgical techniques are sometimes used such as dental operating microscopes, ultrasonic preparation tips, calcium-silicate based filling materials and micro instruments. Most times tooth extraction is the only other option. If necessary prosthetic replacements such as dentures, implants and dental bridge will be considered. This can be a painful and time-consuming process but at this point there are not many other options. This is why it is important to get checked out early if you think you may have a root canal problem.

Laser Assisted Root Canal Therapy

LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) therapy uses beams of light to change and remove tissues in a patient’s mouth. These lasers are used to open the tooth in order to access the root canal and remove diseased tissue, disinfect and shape the canal, to shape the canal, clean and disinfect and fill it. These lasers are very helpful in root canal disinfection, surgeries and therapy. They are used to remove the pulp and debris, and can shape and clean the walls of the canal. The laser is also used to soften the roof of the canal, after the canal has been sealed. Lasers are more accurate at targeting infected areas and bacteria. Sometimes this can leave a healthier structural tooth. It can also create a less painful procedure and less bleeding during the procedure as well as post surgery discomfort and infection. Some problems that this therapy has are the angle with which the procedure occurs because the laser light goes in a straight line while canal spaces are usually not straight therefore more traditional instruments can be more useful because of curvatures and other things that make it easier to get into the root canal. Also the temperature rise to lasers can cause damage in the canals.

Post and Crown

Posts are things that travel down to the root canal to build support. Coupled with a crown they are referred to as post crowns. There is also another part of the post crown that is called the core. Therefore it will be referred to as post and crown or post and core. Crowns are a type of cap that is placed on a tooth in order to cover it and improve it’s aesthetic. Crowns are used to protect weak teeth, repair cracked teeth, restore broken teeth, to cover fillings, hold dental bridges in place, cover discoloration, and cover dental implants and to make cosmetic modifications. The process for attaching a crown is as follows. The Dentist will first numb the tooth and surrounding area. Then they will file the tooth to create space for the crown. The amount that is filed varies on the type of crown being attached. If there is not much of the tooth left, a dentist will use filling to support the crown. The Dentist will then use paste or putty and make an impression on the tooth. This is to ensure that nothing in the procedure will change a patient’s bite. These impressions are then sent off to a lab, where a crown is created. The Dentist will attach a temporary crown until the actual crown comes in and can be attached. This is the usual procedure for permanent crowns. The post and core pieces are attached when the crown is attached. This builds more support for the crown and better protection for the tooth.

Root Canal

The Root Canal is the cavity of the tooth that holds the pulp or the soft tissue or nerve section of a tooth. This can also refer to the dental procedure where the pulp within an infected tooth is replaced with other materials. This is an important procedure because if a damaged root canal is not treated it will only worsen and damage the tooth to the core, which can cause fractures, disease, further infection, and often tooth loss. That is why it is important to get checked out early and to conduct preventative procedures like brushing two days a day, flossing and attending at least two dentist appointments per year. Of course it is important to schedule multiple appointments for problems within the root canal and to seek dental advice from professionals for these serious problems.